Hydrogen water and β-adrenergic receptors
There have been a couple of interesting scientific papers released in recent days, one on horses and the use of hydrogen-rich water and oxidative stress, the other on β-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms within the ADRB2 gene as it relates to power/sprint performance in humans.
Effect of Treadmill Exercise and Hydrogen-rich Water Intake on Serum Oxidative and Anti-oxidative Metabolites in Serum of Thoroughbred Horses - The present study aimed to clarify changes of oxidative stress and antioxidative functions in treadmill-exercised Thoroughbred horses (n=5, 3 to 7 years old), using recently developed techniques for measurement of serum d-ROMs for oxidative stress, and BAP for antioxidative markers. Also, the effect of nasogastric administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) or placebo water preceding the treadmill exercise on these parameters was examined. Each horse was subjected to a maximum level of treadmill exercise in which the horses were exhausted at an average speed of 13.2 ± 0.84 m/sec. Blood samples were taken 4 times, immediately before the intake of HW or placebo water at 30 min preceding the treadmill exercise, immediately before the exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after the exercise (post-exercise) and at 30 min following the exercise. In all horses, both d-ROMs and BAP values significantly increased at post-exercise. The increase in d-ROMs tended to be lower in the HW trial, as compared to the placebo trial at pre-exercise. The increase in BAP was considerable at approximately 150 % of the pre-exercise values in both the HW and placebo treatment trials. The BAP/d-ROMs ratio was significantly elevated at post-exercise in both treatment trials, while a significant elevation was also observed at pre-exercise in the HW trial. BAP, d-ROM, and the BAP/d-ROM ratio tended to decline at 30 min after the exercise, except BAP and BAP/d-ROMs in the placebo trial. These results demonstrate that the marked elevation of oxidative stress and anitioxidative functions occurred simultaneously in the intensively exercised horses, and suggest a possibility that HW has some antioxidative efficacy.
Association of the ADRB2 Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln polymorphisms with athlete status - The β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) have known functional roles in cardiovascular and pulmonary responses as well as the appropriate substrate metabolism required for athletic ability. Thus, the β-AR genes are plausible candidates for the variations observed in strength/power and endurance performance levels. The aims of the present study were to compare the frequency distribution of the ADRB2 Gly16Arg and ADRB2Glu27Gln polymorphisms among athletes of sports with different metabolic and cardiopulmonary demands (endurance vs. strength/power) and to test the association between the Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln genotypes and athlete status. The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes). Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. The χ2 test of independence revealed that the frequencies of the Gly16 and Glu27 alleles were significantly higher in the strength/power athletes than in the controls (69.0% vs. 59.7%; df = 1, P = 0.017 and 51% vs. 41.5%; df = 1 P = 0.017, respectively). The study showed that ADRB2 Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln markers are associated with athlete status in Polish athletes. An excess of Gly16 and Glu27 alleles and the Gly16:Glu27 haplotype observed in the strength/power athlete subgroup suggests that the Gly16 and Glu27 alleles might increase the probability of becoming a strength/power athlete rather than an endurance-oriented athlete.